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#1594 - 02/13/10 01:48 AM Ticks and Tick Diseases
MaxaLisa Offline

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Edited by MaxaLisa (08/26/12 03:04 AM)

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#21434 - 03/19/10 01:39 AM Re: Ticks & Tick Diseases/General TBD Info [Re: MaxaLisa]
MaxaLisa Offline

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Most simple and straightforward overview

Tick-L Links and directions for subscription to the "tick list"

Tick Diseases in Dogs (lyme info, some of it is out of date)
(word document, mainly ehrlichias; note that E. Equi is now Anaplasmosa and is contained in the latest SNAP test)

Gastrointestinal and Hepatic Manifestations of Tickborne Diseases in the United States (information on co-infections in canines, by Idexx) (Infectious Disease Update, Birkenheuer, Vector Borne Diagnostic Lab, NCSU)

Tick Disease Personal Experiences

How to Remove a Tick (they sell a neat tick removal tool) (tick removal device) (tick removal device) (Coghlan's tick removal device)

Misc Tick Disease Websites

Idexx Testing Information

Comparison of Minocycline, Doxycycline, and Tetracycline

What to do with a Positive SNAP test:


The SNAP-3Dx and SNAP-4Dx tests screen for antibodies against E. canis. The test may pick up cross-reacting antibodies due to some other Ehrlichia spp. infections, such as E. chaffeensis, but probably will miss antibodies directed against E. ewingii or Anaplasma spp. (these may cross-react on Ehrlichia spp. IFA tests). The SNAP-4Dx test also screens for antibodies against Anaplasma phagocytophilum, previously known as Ehrlichia equi, the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE), and picks up the cross-reacting antibodies of A. platys, the agent of infectious cyclic thrombocytopenia. A. platys is mostly found in the southeastern states, and carriers are often asymptomatic or show intermittent thrombocytopenia which may not be clinically significant. If the Ehrlichia or Anaplasma SNAP test result is negative but signs suggest disease could be due to these agents, then paired (acute and convalescent) testing should be done, since the test may be negative in the acute stages of disease when antibody levels are still low and the dog has not had time yet to seroconvert. These tests are qualitatively positive or negative. If the clinician wants to check the heighth of a positive titer, there are laboratories which can do quantitative assays (eg, ProtaTek Reference Laboratory, Chandler, AZ or the NCSU Tick Borne Diagnostic Laboratory, Raleigh, NC). Circulating DNA of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma spp. can be tested and speciated by PCR technology (NCSU), using EDTA samples of whole blood. The best time to get a sample for PCR testing is before treatment (doxycycline) has been started, since the organisms may decrease in number in circulation and may hide in the reticuloendothelial system (spleen, bone marrow, etc).

Tick control, public health, and the possibility of co-infections should be discussed whenever a seropositive result is found (see above**).

Once a dog is SNAP positive, it may remain positive for months to years, even after treatment. Comparing pre- and post-treatment quantitative titers may be helpful (6-12 months post-treatment) to check for possible clearance (decline) or to get a new baseline to compare in the future should signs recur (check for reinfection or relapse). I don’t expect post-treatment titers to become negative; immune memory may allow for post-treatment titers to stay positive, but I watch for a decline. PCR testing may be helpful to check for the carrier state, but a negative PCR does not guarantee that the animal is completely cleared, since the organism may hide in the RES, and not exist in the small aliquot of circulating blood used for the test.

Edited by MaxaLisa (06/02/13 02:02 PM)

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#55638 - 06/20/10 06:09 PM Re: Ticks and Tick Diseases/Lyme Vaccine Info [Re: MaxaLisa]
MaxaLisa Offline

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Lyme Vaccine
Note: The first OspA vaccine on the market (for dogs) was in 1996. The OspA information applies to current vaccines in use. (Development of destructive arthritis in vaccinated hamsters challenged with Borrelia burgdorferi.) (Occurrence of Severe Destructive Lyme Arthritis in Hamsters Vaccinated with OSP-A vaccine and Challenged with Borrelia burgdorferi) (Adverse event reports following vaccination for Lyme disease: December 1998-July 2000.) (neuropathy after vaccination) (Neuropathy and cognitive impairment following vaccination with the OspA protein of Borrelia burgdorferi.) (Lymerix safety revisted, 2008)

Neurological complications of vaccination with outer surface protein A (OspA) 2011


A wide range of neurological complications have been reported via the medical literature and the VAERS system after vaccination with recombinant outer surface protein A (OspA) of Borrelia. To explore this issue, 24 patients reporting neurological adverse events (AE) after vaccination with Lymerix, out of a group of 94 patients reporting adverse events after Lymerix vaccination, were examined for causation. Five reports of cerebral ischemia, two transient Ischemic attacks, five demyelinating events, two optic neuritis, two reports of transverse myelitis, and one non-specific demyelinating condition are evaluated in this paper. Caution is raised on not actively looking for neurologic AE, and for not considering causation when the incidence rate is too low to raise a calculable difference to natural occurence.

6. Conclusions
OspA vaccines are capable of initiating a wide array of acute and chronic neurological AE. Not surprisingly, some of these AE resembled neurological manifestations of Lyme disease, and point to reactivation of latent infection, molecular mimecry or aberrant immune responses as mechanisms. Adverse effect profiles from limited pre-licensure studies should not deter from making a clinical determination of relatedness for seemingly new or unreported AE, This is particularly true if the AE follows along a pattern seen for the disease being vaccinated against.
A few dogs can develop lesions on the kidneys (Lyme nephropathy) and may not respond to antibiotic treatment. Interestingly, dogs susceptible to this condition may not be protected by the Lyme vaccines currently available. In fact, there are concerns that the vaccine may possibly sensitize a genetically predisposed individual to having a more intense immune-mediated reaction to Lyme antigens, or the vaccine may add to antigen-antibody complex deposition in tissues (Meryl P. Littman, VMD, DACVIM, University of Pennsylvania).

Information on the release of the Novibac Lyme OspA and C Lyme vaccine 6/2009:
(Be sure to read ALL the comments at the end.)

Human Lyme Disease Vaccines: Past and Future Concerns: Concerns With the OspA Vaccin
Future Microbiology
Dean T. Nardelli, Erik L. Munson, Steven M. Callister, Ronald F. Schell
Future Microbiol. 2009;4(4):457-469.

Potential for Adverse Effects

A paramount concern in the creation of a vaccine is that it does not induce harmful side effects, despite its ability to prevent disease. Indeed, ample evidence in animal models and humans demonstrates that vaccination with OspA provides at least short-term antibody-mediated protection against infection with B. burgdorferi. However, studies in animals and humans conducted prior to and after the Phase III OspA human vaccine trials showed that the immune response to OspA may come with the caveat of autoreactivity against the recipient. Recently, Steere and Glickstein hypothesized that structural homology between host peptides and OspA induces an autoimmune mechanism, which mediates antibiotic treatment-resistant Lyme arthritis.[64] In addition, reports of Lyme disease symptoms[65,66] in recipients of OspA vaccines raised questions about the safety of such a vaccine. Concerns about these potential side effects may have played a factor in the withdrawal of the Lyme disease vaccine from the market.

Although the humoral response to OspA appears to be effective in the clearance of B. burgdorferi infection, several studies have linked the development of OspA-specific antibodies to the manifestation of late-stage Lyme disease symptoms - particularly chronic arthritis. Steere et al. demonstrated a genetic predisposition to the development of chronic, antibiotic treatment-resistant Lyme arthritis.[67] A vast majority of patients with chronic arthritis were shown to possess either, or both, human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR4 or -DR2 alleles, whereas individuals with short- or moderate-duration arthritis were less likely to possess these alleles.[67] The onset of prolonged bouts of arthritis in HLA-DR4-positive individuals coincided with development of strong IgG responses to OspA months to years after manifestation of initial Lyme disease symptoms.[68] In addition, most patients with chronic arthritis developed a strong IgG response to a C-terminal OspA epitope, and this anti-OspA antibody response reflected the duration of arthritis.[58] These findings were supported by Akin et al., who showed that the production of anti-OspA IgG antibodies correlated with the duration and severity of chronic Lyme arthritis, while the IgG responses to most other B. burgdorferi proteins were indicative of early-stage disease manifestations.[69] These studies indicate that the development of chronic Lyme arthritis is related to immune recognition of OspA months after the onset of initial disease symptoms. The correlation between late-stage OspA reactivity and arthritis development suggests epitopes of OspA may induce an adverse response in humans.

This assertion is supported by the association of OspA-reactive T cells in the development of chronic Lyme arthritis. The T-cell response to B. burgdorferi polypeptides in patients with chronic Lyme arthritis was stronger than that of infected patients with transient arthritis,[70] and T-cell clones derived from patients with Lyme arthritis were shown to bind to OspA epitopes.[71-73] In addition, T cells from the synovial fluid or peripheral blood of patients with antibiotic treatment-resistant Lyme arthritis were able to preferentially recognize OspA, whereas those of individuals with treatment-responsive arthritis were not.[74] OspA-reactive T cells localized in the joints of patients with chronic Lyme arthritis were subsequently identified as Th1 cells.[75] However, despite an abundance of circumstantial evidence for OspA-induced T-cell autoreactivity in the development of chronic Lyme arthritis, a host peptide with homology to any borrelial antigen had yet to be indentified.

Various HLA-DRB alleles associated with rheumatoid arthritis[76] are frequently found in individuals with Lyme arthritis several years after receiving antibiotic treatment.[77,78] Using a transgenic mouse model expressing a human major histocompatibility complex class II HLA-DRB allele, an immunodominant OspA epitope (OspA165-173) was identified.[79] The structure of this OspA epitope was shown to be homologous to a sequence of human leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 (hLFA-1),[79] providing the first evidence for possible autoimmune-inducing molecular mimicry between borrelial and human peptides. Subsequently, certain HLA-DRB molecules of the DR4 subtype were shown to bind OspA165-173 and its hLFA-1 homolog,[77] and an association between OspA165-173-binding HLA-DR molecules and antibiotic treatment-resistant Lyme arthritis was postulated.[78] By contrast, LFA-1 was shown to be a weak agonist for T cells reactive against OspA165-173, making it an unlikely source of autoimmune-inducing molecular mimicry.[80] Nonetheless, the hypothesis of arthritis-inducing molecular mimicry to host tissue is intriguing.[64] In addition, reports of adverse effects in humans after OspA vaccination raise a red flag that OspA is involved in the induction of those effects.[65,66] Moreover, nearly 1000 reports of adverse effects following OspA vaccination were documented by the US FDA less than 2 years after the vaccine was placed on the market.[81] Although most of these cases were not reported as published case studies, these events of adverse effects contributed to the withdrawal of the vaccine for use in humans.

In addition, the idea that vaccination with B. burgdorferi or its components may carry the risk of direct or indirect arthritic side effects was known prior to the FDA-approved human OspA vaccine field trials. Lim et al. showed that hamsters vaccinated with whole Borrelia organisms developed a severe, destructive osteoarthropathy following infection with a heterologous borrelial strain.[82] Arthritis in these vaccinated hamsters was mediated by Borrelia-specific T cells.[83] In addition, severe, destructive arthritis developed following heterologous infection of Borrelia-vaccinated mice.[84-87] Most importantly, Croke et al. showed that vaccination with recombinant OspA also primed animals for arthritis development following heterologous challenge.[88] In addition, OspA vaccination has also been linked to development of arthritis and neurological disease in humans.[65-66] Collectively, these findings represent various lines of evidence of OspA-induced adverse effects in animals and humans. Interestingly, these adverse effects were ignored since they may not have reflected the preliminary safety data collected in humans by Keller et al.[38] These adverse reports highlight the necessity for evaluating all evidence on the safety of prospective Lyme vaccines, particularly those composed of OspA.

New approaches for creating safe and effective OspA vaccines for Lyme disease are in development. A modified OspA-based vaccine showed potential for protection against infection without induction of autoreactive T cells.[89] An epitope on OspA is reportedly able to induce autoreactive T cells owing to its significant structural homology to that of hLFA-1.[79] These investigators mutated the potentially cross-reactive OspA epitope while maintaining the structure of an epitope reported to bind protective antibodies.[89] Mice vaccinated with the modified OspA were protected from needle challenge with B. burgdorferi, while OspA-reactive human T cells did not respond to the mutated OspA protein.[89] Although more work is required to characterize the vaccine-induced immune response and protection afforded against tick-borne infection, removal of this potentially autoreactive epitope may be a key requirement for any future Lyme disease vaccine containing OspA. However, this vaccine still does not overcome the fact that OspA is downregulated in the feeding tick.

Lyme nephritis, Meryl P. Littman VMD, DACVIM
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
Volume 23, Issue 2, <> pages 163–173, March/April 2013

(LN=Lyme nephritis, CIC - circulating immune complexes)

" Vaccination for LN, a disease with an immune-mediated pathogenesis, may be problematic and is still controversial even in endemic areas. Tick control is needed to prevent other diseases; 95% of Lyme+ dogs remain asymptomatic; Lyme arthritis in the <5% responds quickly to safe, inexpensive antimicrobials; the duration of immunity requires frequent boostering and is not 100%; Lyme bacterin has been associated with more postvaccinal adverse events than other vaccines we use; and there are concerns about possible immune-mediated sequellae in genetically predisposed dogs. Since this most serious form of Lyme disease affecting <2% of Lyme+ dogs is caused by immune-complex disease, and since high CIC occur for weeks to months after vaccination (longer in boostered or Lyme+ dogs, and longer with bacterin than subunit ospA vaccine), it is theoretically possible that vaccinal immune-complexes could be deposited in glomeruli of a genetically predisposed individual. Potentially, this could happen over time and not appear temporally related to vaccination. Without an inducible experimental model, it is difficult to determine the host-pathogen factors that are associated with LN and whether vaccine antigens protect against it, or if they could sensitize or aggravate the condition. Early reports showed up to 30% of LN suspects had been vaccinated; 6 dogs had been vaccinated with Lyme bacterin 2 weeks to 15 months prior to presentation with LN.

OspA is in all currently available vaccines and is proinflammatory enough that it does not require an adjuvant. OspA has been associated with immune-mediated disease in other species including people with nonresponsive Lyme arthritis. Monoclonal anti-ospA stains showed positive staining in kidneys of dogs with LN. In hamsters, Lyme bacterin or subunit ospA vaccine caused more severe arthritis in vaccinates than in nonvaccinates after challenge. OspA alone is arthritogenic in rats; sensitization occurs so that even more intense arthritis is seen with boosters. Many doses of Lyme vaccines have been used and most dogs do not get sick, but most dogs do not get sick with Lyme disease either."

There might be an OspA out there that does not induce autoimmunity in the above population of individuals. However, I do not know of a vaccine that uses this OspA over the other one. This article describes some of the issues:
An effective second-generation outer surface protein A-derived Lyme vaccine that eliminates a potentially autoreactive T cell epitope

OspA suppresses the immune system (lymphocytes in particular, if I read this right):
Modulation of lymphocyte proliferative responses by a canine Lyme disease vaccine of recombinant outer surface protein A (OspA)

OspA: The Greatest Imitator
(I couldn't find part 3)
Power Point Presentation with Audio:

Lyme Vaccine for Humans, Second Try
Here are some links related to this info and discussion

Edited by MaxaLisa (12/22/13 07:44 PM)

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#61359 - 07/05/10 09:48 PM Re: Ticks and Tick Diseases/Samento [Re: MaxaLisa]
MaxaLisa Offline

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In Vitro Effectiveness of Samento and Banderol Herbal Extracts on the Different Morphological Forms of Borrelia Burgdorferi
by Akshita Datar, Navroop Kaur, Seema Patel, David F. Luecke, and Eva Sapi, PhD
Lyme Disease Research Group, University of New Haven

Townsend Letter for Doctors & Patients, July 2010


A tick-borne, multisystemic disease, Lyme borreliosis caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi has grown into a major public health problem during the last 10 years. The primary treatment for chronic Lyme disease is administration of various antibiotics.

However, relapse often occurs when antibiotic treatment is discontinued. One possible explanation for this is that B. burgdorferi become resistant to antibiotic treatment, by converting from their vegetative spirochete form into different round bodies and/or into biofilmlike colonies. There is an urgent need to find novel therapeutic agents that can eliminate all these different morphologies of B. burgdorferi.

In this study, two herbal extracts, Samento and Banderol, as well as doxycycline (one of the primary antibiotics for Lyme disease treatment) were tested for their in vitro effectiveness on several of the different morphological forms of B. burgdorferi (spirochetes, round bodies, and biofilmlike colonies) using fluorescent, darkfield microscopic, and BacLight viability staining methods.

Our results demonstrated that both herbal agents, but not doxycycline, had very significant effects on all forms of B. burgdorferi, especially when used in combination, suggesting that herbal agents could provide an effective therapeutic approach for Lyme disease patients.

Full text:

There are several articles in this July 2010 issue of the Townsend Letter on topics related to Lyme disease which can be viewed in the print edition. View the Table of Contents for the July 2010 issue here:


This is the place that one person on the tick list used:

She gradually increased her dog from 5 drops of Samento to 10 twice per day. The dog then needed the boost of Cumanda after a few mos. 10 drops twice daily, and she reported that it helped quite a bit. She also gave Milk Thistle twice a day and probiotics once a day.

The person that used to post about Samento said that there is a guy named Derek at that site that is very helpful. I might be hesitant to use the alcohol tincture in a dog with pancreas issues, and stick with the capsules in that case?

More information:

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#63125 - 07/10/10 10:10 PM Re: Ticks & Tick Diseases/Natural Prevention [Re: MaxaLisa]
MaxaLisa Offline

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Here are some non-chemical preventatives used. They may or may not be effective.


How to Make a Bug Spray:

Commercial Products:

Springtime Bug-Off Garlic


Posted by Jane Jean: This is the recipe from the holistic vet(if you can share the oils with friends it helps offset the cost of them)

Dr Pam's Flea and Tick Spray
8 oz purified water
8 oz vinegar
1 tsp each:
spearmint oil, peppermint oil, citronella oil, lavender oil, and lemongrass oil.

Also you can use a TBS olive oil or almond oil to carry it.
Shake well~spray as needed.


Mix 5 drops of oil of rose geranium & a drop of oil of lemongrass per ounce of water (filtered). The amount of lemongrass can be increased; do not lessen the rose geranium.


20 drops Rose Geranium essential oil in a base of 1 tsp vodka/1 tsp glycerin (both not necessary but will help disperse the oil better)/distilled water (4 oz spray bottle but would recommend same recipe in an 8oz bottle for small dogs) sprayed on daily


Neem oil or soy bean oil as the base oil, bothare also insect repelling. With 1-2 drops each per tablesp of the following: clove, cedar wood, citronella, lemongrass, lemon eucalyptus, and rosemary.


Places to buy essential oils:


Source for Nematodes:

Threads discussing bug control and prevention (includes ticks, fleas, etc.):


(Ticks and Fleas and bugs)

Edited by MaxaLisa (05/10/14 05:28 PM)

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#82780 - 09/11/10 03:54 PM Re: Ticks & Tick Diseases/Alternative Care [Re: MaxaLisa]
MaxaLisa Offline

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Edited by MaxaLisa (07/03/13 03:46 AM)

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#84764 - 09/18/10 08:55 PM Re: Ticks & Tick Diseases/Individual Disease Info [Re: MaxaLisa]
MaxaLisa Offline

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Note: There is still not a definitive document which explains the extent to which a tick disease can affect the body in subtle and dramatic ways, in the short term, and also in the long term. There are frequent treatment failures, as well as testing failures. Experience on the tick list says that to decrease the odds of relapse, or development of long term chronic disease, treat aggressively (with doxycycline in most cases at 10 mg/kg, or roughly 5 mg/lb, TWICE a day), for a long enough period of time (6 weeks minimum). This is a repeat of the information that is discussed here: This information is included as a reminder in this post, as many of the research papers will suggest otherwise. Babesia and Bartonella are not treated with doxycycline.

There are some papers indexed here on the various tick diseases:

In a Bayer Webinar on 7/11/2012, it was said that there are new pathogens being found at almost the rate of one every 18 months - Ehrlichia and Rickettsia.

Tick Paralysis (Australia)

anti-tick serum, Australia, non-USA:
Some links taken from this thread:
Owners looking for more information *may* find some helpful in also looking at Coonhound Paralysis


Potential Babesia Vaccine: (Note 50% had thrombocytopenia as a reaction to the vaccine, which resolved. It is not told how long the dogs were studied, or how they reacted to subsequent vaccines, of any type.)
Babesia vaccine paper


(While this article unfortunately downplays the potential seriousness of this disease, on pg 7 starts a very nice description of some of the effects of clinical disease in dogs.)

A case of E. Ewingii

Ehrlichia associated Vasculitis
General signs of vasculitis:

Ehrlichiosis, A Silent and Deadly Killer

Why all the concern about Ehrlichia?

Causes for Low Platelets

Canine Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia (AIHA)

Ehrlichia and Anaplasma Infections

Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection (granulocytic anaplasmosis) in a dog from Vancouver Island

Ehrlichia are parasitic organisms which are something like a virus but are classed with bacteria. They attack the bone marrow, crippling its ability to make the white blood cells (leukocytes) which are an important component of the immune system.

“Once a human or animal is stricken with Ehrlichiosis, white cells die off faster than the bone marrow can replace them. These dead cells migrate primarily to the spleen which enlarges as a result. Frantically, the bone marrow works to form new, healthy cells. In its haste, it sends out immature cells which do not work efficiently. Quite often these immature cells are almost indistinguishable from those seen in leukemia patients. Advanced Ehrlichiosis is, in fact, often misdiagnosed as leukemia or lymphosarcoma.”

Since that was written, indications have grown stronger that Ehrlichiosis either causes cancer or sets up the conditions for cancer to develop. It has been suggested that dogs ostensibly cured of it should be tested for cancer four years after titering clear as so many seem to develop cancer of one form or another in that time frame.

Neorickettsia risticii


The Neuropsychiatric Assessment of Lyme Disease

"Bell's Palsy of the Gut" and Other GI Manifestations of Lyme and Associated Diseases

ACVIM Small Animal Consensus Statement on Lyme Disease in Dogs: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention 2006

Lyme Consensus Update 2008
(Word document discussing lyme, kidney, and vaccination issues)
all consensus statements:

Standard of Care, Littman, 2004

Cornell Lyme Testing

Why moquitos are not a good vector for Lyme

Different species of Lyme Disease:

Borrelia miyamotoi Infection Presenting as Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis: A Case Report:


A newly recognized human pathogen with unknown health consequences has been found to occur over a large part of the San Francisco Bay Area. A study to be published in the March issue of the journal Emerging Infectious Disease details how researchers including Dan Salkeld, a research associate at the Stanford Woods Institute for the Environment, found the bacterium, Borrelia miyamotoi, as well as Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacterium that causes Lyme disease, in ticks they sampled throughout the area.

The researchers were surprised to find ticks infected with one or both bacteria in nearly every park they examined. The findings raise the question of whether B. miyamotoi has gone undetected in California residents. They also represent "an important step toward dispelling the perception that you cannot acquire Lyme disease in California," said Ana Thompson, executive director of the Bay Area Lyme Foundation.

More at the link....

RMSF, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

The use of Bryonia alba 30C, Acetaminophenum 30C and Doxacyclinum 30C in rmsf:

Other Spotted Fevers (might they cross-react with rmsf titers????)
Dr. B on the Spotted Fever Group:

Molecular Characterization of Rickettsial Diseases in Dogs

Tick-Borne Rickettsioses around the World: Emerging Diseases Challenging Old Concepts

A Focus of Dogs and Rickettsia massiliae–Infected Rhipicephalus sanguineus in California

Rickettsia 364D: a newly recognized cause of eschar-associated illness in California

Demonstration and Partial Characterization of Antigens of Rickettsia rhipicephali That Induce Cross-Reactive Cellular and Humoral Immune Responses to Rickettsia rickettsii

Heartland Virus

Two Missouri farmers have been infected with a brand-new tick-borne virus that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is calling the Heartland virus.

The men recovered but suffered serious illness that required hospital care and weeks of convalescence. Symptoms included fever, severe fatigue, headache and nausea. Their platelet counts plummeted, but even though platelets are necessary for blood clotting, the men didn't suffer abnormal bleeding....

...the new virus is in the phlebovirus family, which contains more than 70 members. And here's another twist: Heartland virus appears to be a cousin of another new human virus called severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus, discovered last year in China. Another possible cousin may be Bhanja virus, a little-studied virus that has been found in some mammals, birds and reptiles in Asia, Africa and Europe.

Edited by MaxaLisa (06/07/14 06:16 PM)

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#95274 - 10/17/10 07:15 PM Re: Ticks & Tick Diseases/Digestive Issues [Re: MaxaLisa]
MaxaLisa Offline

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#109992 - 11/30/10 06:27 PM Re: Ticks & Tick Diseases/Blood Counts & Platelets [Re: MaxaLisa]
MaxaLisa Offline

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General Info on Blood Counts and Platelets:

Mechanisms of Thrombocytopenia in Tick-Borne Diseases

Clotted Platelets
According to Dr. Holland, there is a protein in E. Canis (not sure if I worded it that way, so this is paraphrased), that makes the blood clot. So, when platelets are low and clumped, it may be the TBD.

Low Platelets can cause bleeding under the skin, blood clots under the tongue, and white gums.

A picture of Petechiae (Bleeding into the skin), caused by low platelets:

Thank you to Matt and Arie for use of the picture smile

Elevated Platelets

Edited by MaxaLisa (07/17/14 02:43 PM)

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#128737 - 01/29/11 08:24 PM Re: Ticks & Tick Diseases/Cats [Re: MaxaLisa]
MaxaLisa Offline

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MaxaL (aka LisaT)

Jazmine, mini-mix, 10/18/2011
Max, 5/2001-2/2012, RIP my partner, my Regal Boy
Indy, 5/1997-10/2010, RIP my friend, my teacher

Health Index
K9 TBD info and Tick List Links

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